The Way of Science



Write your name on the back of the exam.
  1. Astronomers use various "yard sticks" to measure the distance to the planets, stars, and galaxies. Describe three of the four listed below. (7 points each)
    1. Radar (radio wave) to measure the distance to the moon
    2. Triangulation to measure the height of a tall tree
    3. Parallax to measure the distance to a star within 300 light-years away
    4. Cepheid variables to measure the distance to galaxies

  2. What is the "Doppler effect"? Explain the Doppler effect for sound. Assume your reader is familiar with the definition of wavelength and frequency. (10 points)

  3. Now explain the Doppler effect for the electromagnetic radiation Use the green light to explain the "red shift" and "blue shift". (10 points)

  4. The Big Bang Theory describes the origin and the expansion of the Universe. The theory was first proposed to account for the observations made by Edwin Hubble known as Hubble's Law. Describe Hubble's observations and show how the Big Bang Theory explains this observation. (10 points)

  5. Give two lines of evidence that support the Big Bang Theory. (10 points)

  6. What are four fundamental forces of the Universe? Describe each one briefly. (10 points)

  7. There are three possibilities for the fate of the Universe. What are they? Describe each. (10 points)

  8. Based on the video, "Runaway Universe", what is the most likely fate of the Universe at this time? Briefly describe how the astronomers obtained data to support this conclusion. (5 points)

  9. Briefly explain three of the following. (5 points each)
    1. light-year
    2. dark matter
    3. quasar
    4. emission spectrum

  10. "What is science?" Write as much as you like within the exam period and use as much space as you need. (Bonus up to 100 points)
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